Craniostenoza (craniosynostosis)

Craniostenoza (craniosynostosis)

Craniostenosis is a dysfunction by which the cranial sutures close prematurely in children. When the baby is born, the bones are flexible and overlap to allow passage through the vaginal canal. Closing the fountain (the village formed at the meeting of the bones of the cranial cap) around the age of 2 years, during this time allowing the brain to develop. Sometimes, however, this suture appears from birth, being part of the congenital malformations.

What is craniosthenosis?

Craniostenosis or craniosynostosis is a congenital malformation characterized by premature closure of skull sutures in children. This results in the deformed head in children with implications and on the symmetry of the face.

Doctors have failed to identify the causes underlying premature closure of premature suture welding and delay in brain development.

Types of craniosynthesis

There are several types of craniosynthesis:

  • primary (when no other associated conditions appear);

  • secondary (when there are disorders associated with this problem);

  • simple (when it comes to closing a single suture);

  • complex (when several sutures are welded).

How is craniosynthesis recognized?

In addition to the obvious deformity of the child's head and the fact that the suture sometimes feels like a "ridge" there are some specific signs of this condition:

  • craniofacial dysmorphia;

  • ophthalmologic syndrome;

  • neuropsychiatric syndrome;

  • endocrine disorders.

Depending on the sutures that are welded they are divided into other categories, each having its own symptomatology:

  • Sagittal craniosthenosis (elongated and narrow skull);

  • Coronary craniosthenosis (flattening of the forehead on the side of the affection; facial asymmetry, strabismus etc.);

  • Metopic craniosthenosis (the lateral parts of the head are more convex, and the eyes may appear close);

  • Craniosthenosis lambdoida (concave posterior part of the skull; flattening almost entirely of the head of the child);

  • Positional deformation (positional plagiocephaly) has the same characteristics as lamdoid synostosis, but without the suture completely closing.

How is the diagnosis made?

In general, the disease is diagnosed on the basis of symptomatology. Most craniosynostoses have been observed since birth and they progress as the child gets older.

Carefully examine the child's head, measure the head circumference and compare with the age-specific charts. Also, an ophthalmological check is performed to detect the possibility of intracranial pressure.

In some types of craniosthenosis, especially in those associated with other conditions, the baby's hands and feet are affected, so they are also subjected to a thorough examination.

The doctors you should call in this case are:

  • neurologists;

  • ophthalmologists;

  • geneticists.

They can do several tests, from simple x-rays to three-dimensional computed tomography and even MRI depending on the particularities of each child.

How is craniosynthesis corrected?

Generally, they are corrected over time as the child gets older, without surgery. Doctors call for surgery in severe cases and in cases where the condition does not improve in a timely manner.

The procedure consists of performing a craniotomy for facial reconstruction. In other words, doctors try by this method to remove the bone portion that closes the suture and reposition the bones of the skull.

If it is not corrected in time, craniosthenosis involves many complications:

  • intracranial pressure;

  • mental retardation;

  • motor delay;

  • facial asymmetry;

  • ophthalmological disorders.

Tags Congenital malformations fat